• Apply the scientific method to questions in biology by formulating testable hypotheses, gathering data that address these hypotheses, and analyzing those data to assess the degree to which their scientific work supports their hypotheses.
• Access the primary literature, identify relevant works for a particular topic, and evaluate the scientific content of these works.
• Explain how organisms function at the level of the gene, genome, cell, tissue, organ and organ-system. Drawing upon this knowledge, they will be able to give specific examples of the physiological adaptations, development, reproduction and behaviour of different forms of life.
• Demonstrate proficiency in the experimental techniques and methods of analysis appropriate for their area of specialization within biology.
• Recall details and information about the evolution, anatomy, morphology, systematics, genetics, physiology, ecology, and conservation of plants, algae, and fungi.
Course Outcome
Major
BOTMT-101: Algae, Fungi and Lichen
• Develop basic knowledge of thallus morphology, reproduction and evolution of lower cryptogams.
• Explain general characters, classification and economic importance of algae, fungi, lichen and their phylogeny and distribution in India.
• Analyse comparative account of structure, method of reproduction and mode of spore dispersal of fungi
• Analyse symbiotic association and nutrition in lichen.
UNITS        : 8
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 45

BOTMP-102: Algae, Fungi and Lichen (Practical)
• Examine the vegetative and sexual stages of algae, fungi and lichen.
• Draw camera lucida diagrams of fungal spores
• Measure the size of fungal spore
• Identify the different types of lichen thallus.

UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15
BOTMT-201: Plant Pathology and Bryophyte

• Develop fundamental knowledge on the structure, morphology, reproduction, alternation of generation and tissue organization and spore dispersal mechanism in Bryophytes.
• Learn principles of plant pathology   with special reference to systematic and localized diseases and symptoms.
• Analyses host parasitic interaction.
• Develops knowledge about diseases and their method of control.
• Learn about general account, classification and distribution of Bryophytes in India.
UNITS        : 7
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 45

BOTMP-202: Plant Pathology and Bryophyte (Practical)
• Dissect and examine plant infection.
• Measure pathogenic microbes responsible for diseases in plants.
• Make permanent slides of bryophytes
• Illustrate the sexual stages in bryophytes
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

BOTMT-301: Pteridophyte, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany
• Make comparative account of structural morphology, distribution anatomy and reproduction.
• Explain evolution of seed habit in higher cryptograms.
• Develop knowledge about stellar structure and evolutionary links.
• List the economic importance of pteridophytes and gymnosperms.
• Define Paleobotany.
• Describe an elementary knowledge of paleobotany-process and the theory of fossilization.
UNITS        : 7
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 45

BOTMP-302: Pteridophyte, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany (Practical)
• Make temporary slides of vegetative and reproductive structures of Pteridophytes
• Make temporary slides of vegetative and reproductive structures of Gymnosperms
• Identification of fossil slides of plants.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15
BOTMT-303: Microbiology and Biotechnology
• Develops basic knowledge of Microbiology and Biotechnology in the light of recent developments.
• Describe the processes used by microorganisms for their replication, survival, and interaction with their environment, hosts, and host populations.
• Explain the theoretical basis of the tools, technologies and methods used in microbiology
• Decide and apply appropriate tools and techniques in biotechnological manipulation.
• Define genetic engineering and its merits and demerits.
UNITS        : 9
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 45
BOTMP-304: Microbiology and Biotechnology Practical
• Explain the uses of hot air oven, incubator, autoclave, sterilization techniques.
• Construct different types of media and cultures, dilution plate technique.
• Demonstrate tissue culture technique.
• Test for the presence of bacteria.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

BOTMT-401: Morphology and Taxonomy of Angiosperms
• Define taxonomy
• Distinguish between taxonomy and systematic.
• Conclude the principles of plant taxonomy.
• Evaluate the angiosperm history.
• Demonstrate the main features of different classification keys.
• Interpret and evaluate alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for plants
• Describe the floral characteristics of angiosperms families.
UNITS        : 4
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 45

BOTMP-402: Morphology and Taxonomy of Angiosperms (Practical)
• Illustrate and dissect, draw and describe angiospermic plants
• Create herbarium sheets, dry botanical specimens, permanent and semi-permanent slides of roots, leaves and pollen grains.

UNITS        : 3
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

BOTMT-403: Cell Biology and Modern Laboratory Technique
• List the fundamental features of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, the major stages of the cell cycle.
• Recognise and identify the cell organelles.
• Describe the structure, composition of cell membranes, membrane potential, membrane transport, proteins involved.
• Describe gene expression and regulation.
• Outline the principle, working mechanism and application of different types of microscopes
• Choose appropriate method of separation.

UNITS        : 6
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTMP-404: Cell Biology and Modern Laboratory Technique (Practical)

• Explain how to make paraffin blocks with specimens.
• Illustrate the process of trimming, fixing and cutting of ribbons with specimens.
• Experiment with the separation technique of plant pigments and amino acids
UNITS        : 2
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10

BOTMT-501: Development and Reproduction in Angiosperm
• Develop knowledge on organization of different types of tissues, theories of roots and shoots.
• Demonstrate and distinguish the secondary growth in thickness (Mirabilas, Asparagus, Amaranthus etc).
• Distinguish between C3 and C 4 plants.
• Explain the development of male and female gametophyte of angiosperm.
• Relate development of embryo, endosperm, haustorial structures, apomixis, polyembryony.
UNITS        : 8
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 44
BOTMP-502: Development and Reproduction in Angiosperm (Practical)

• Dissect, draw and describe secondary structures of roots and stems of plants.
• Create permanent slides of plant anatomy
• Select appropriate pollen grains and measure pollen germination
• Construct slides of embryological importance.
UNITS        : 2
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10

BOTMT-503: Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biostatistics

• Design, execute, and analyze the results of genetic experimentation in animal and plant model systems.
• Describe the basics of genetic mapping
• Describe the fundamental molecular principles of genetics
• Estimate the relationship between phenotype and genotype in human genetic traits.
• Judge which plant breeding methods are appropriate for specific objectives and situations.
• Formulate and justify a plan for the application of plant breeding methods to achieve a specific objective.
• Demonstrate understanding of statistical issues arising in biological research
UNITS        : 8
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40
BOTMP-504: Genetics and Plant Breeding, Biostatistics
(Practical)
• Experiment with temporary aceto-carmine
and aceto-orecin smear preparations of root tips(onion/lily) and flowerbuds(onion/tradescantia); description of the mitotic and meiotic stages.
• Computation of central tendency and deviation.
• Demonstrate emasculation, bagging, tagging and labelling.
UNITS        : 2
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10


BOTMT-505: Functional and Chemical Biology

• Define biomolecules
• Identify the five classes of polymeric biomolecules and their monomeric building blocks.
• Explain the specificity of enzymes (biochemical catalysts), and the chemistry involved in enzyme action.
• Explain how the metabolism of glucose leads ultimately to the generation of large quantities of ATP.
• Categorize the secondary metabolites.
UNITS        : 5
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTMP-506: Functional and Chemical Biology
(Practical)

• Qualitative analysis of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates
• Quantitive analysis of proteins and carbohydrates.
• Estimation of photosynthetic pigments
• Qualitative analysis of secondary metabolites

UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10


BOTMT-507: Plant Ecology, Phytogeography and Evolution
• Explain how organisms respond to changes in their environment.
• Assess how populations and communities of organisms interact.
• Recognize global and/or regional examples of biotic communities.
• Recognize the general patterns of energy flow through, and chemical cycling of ecosystems.
• Evaluate the relationship between abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems.
• Analyze humans impacts on organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems
• Interpret the dynamics of phytogeography.
• Categorize the vegetation over the globe
• Outline the mechanism of organic evolution
• Compare modes of speciation and species isolating mechanisms.

UNITS        : 9
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 36
BOTMP-508: Plant Ecology, Phytogeography & Evolution
(Practical)
• Determination of minimum sample size for vegetative study
• Determination of minimum number of samples to be taken for vegetative study
• Estimate standing crop biomass and productivity of ecosystem.
• Identification of fossil slides and rocks.
UNITS        : 3
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15
BOTMT-601: Plant Physiology
• Relate plant-water relationships through various physiological processes.
• Analyses of the importance of nutrient mineral element for plants
• Demonstrate understanding of the assimilation of mineral ions by plants, particularly with respect to nitrogen and sulphur
• Identify growth and growth regulator in plants
• Explain the importance of transpiration, photosynthesis and respiration of plant organisms.
• Describe the distribution of metabolic processes in the cell.
UNITS        : 5
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 36

BOTMP-602: Plant Physiology (Practical)
• Determine the osmotic pressure and suction pressure of plant materials.
• Determine the rate of photosynthesis
• Determine the rate of transpiration by various methods
• Analysis of plant ash
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

BOTMT-603: Molecular biology and Immunology
• Account for basic concept of nucleic acids and genome organisation.
• Describe the replication process of DNA
• Illustrate the molecular mechanism of protein synthesis
• Classify the various types of immunity.
• Identify the role of antigen presenting cells, lymphocytes and phagocytic cells in immune responses.
UNITS        : 8
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 6
0
LECTURES: 42

BOTMT-604: Biophysics and Bioinformatics

• Integrate the knowledge of physics to study biological processes.
• Educate interdisciplinary nature of advances in bioinformatics and computational biology.
• Provide basic understanding of how biological data is stored and retrieved from various biological databases.
• Develop an understanding of algorithms of sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis.
UNITS        : 8
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTMP-605: Molecular Biology ,Immunology, Biophysics and Bioinformatics (Practical)

• Preparation of ball and stick model of nucleotides.
• Estimation of RNA/DNA
• Evaluate inhibition zone of various plant extract
• Compare similarity search tools
• Illustrate separation techniques.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

BOTMT-606: Agrotechnology & Sustainable utilization of plants

• Explain the geographical, historical and cultural contributions of economically important plants in the development of human culture.
• Develop a basic knowledge of taxonomic diversity and important families of useful plants.
• Acknowledge the economic uses of plants in modern society.
• Acquire an increased awareness and appreciation of plants and plant products that have shaped our society.
UNITS        : 6
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40
BOTMP-607: Agro technology and Sustainable Utilization of Plants (Practical)
• Test for presence of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates of certain plant materials.
• Determination of soil pH, soil moisture and water holding capacity of different soil samples.
• List some economically important plants with their useful parts.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

Course Outcome
General
BOTGT-101: Lower Cryptogams
• Distinguish between algae and fungi.
• Identify algal, fungal and lichen species.
• Describe the reproductive methods in algae and fungi.
• Develop an understanding bacteria and virus
• Formulate control measures to fungal diseases.

UNITS        : 2
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40
BOTGP-102: Lower Cryptogams (Practical)

• Examine the vegetative and sexual stages of algae, fungi and lichen.
• Demonstrate bacterial staining.
• Identify the different types of lichen thallus.
• Dissect infected leaf to show pathogenic fungus.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 15

BOTGT-201: Bryophyte, Pteridophyte and Gymnosperms
• Develop a basic knowledge  of higher cryptograms and Gymnosperm
• Develop wider concept about the evolution of tissue systems.
• explain seed habit in higher cryptograms and Gymnosperm
UNITS        : 3
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTGP-202: Bryophyte, Pteridophyte and Gymnosperms (Practical)
• Dissect and describe the reproductive structure of bryophytes.
• Show transverse sections of reproductive structures of pteridophytes.
• Dissect and explain the reproductive structure of gymnosperms.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10
BOTGT-301: Morphology, Taxonomy, Development and Reproduction of Angiosperms

• Define taxonomy
• Outline the different systems of classification
• Construct phylogenetic relationships among plants
• Describe angiospermic families
• Categories the plant tissues
• Describe the processes of secondary growth
• Explain the processes of embryo development
UNITS        : 7
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTGP-302: Morphology, Taxonomy, Development and Reproduction of Angiosperms Practical
• Dissect and describe the floral organs of angiospermic flowers
• Dissect and explain the anatomy of roots stems and leaves
• Identify slides of embryologicsl significance.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10
BOTGT-401: Physiology and Economic Botany

• Relate plant-water relationships through various physiological processes.
• Analyses of the importance of nutrient mineral element for plants
• Demonstrate understanding of the assimilation of mineral ions by plants, particularly with respect to nitrogen and sulphur
• Identify growth and growth regulator in plants
• Explain the importance of transpiration, photosynthesis and respiration of plant organisms.
• Assess the economic uses of plants in modern society.
UNITS        : 3
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTGP-402: Physiology and Economic Botany Practical

• Determine the osmotic pressure and suction pressure of plant materials.
• Determine the rate of photosynthesis
• Determine the rate of transpiration by various methods
• List some economically important plant
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10

BOTGT-501: Cytogenetics, Evolution and Biostatistics

• Describe the structure, composition and role of eukaryotic cell membranes
• Recognize and give roles for the major cell organelles.
• Understand the concept of genetic engineering.
• Outline the mechanism of organic evolution
• Demonstrate an understanding of the measures of central tendency.
• Select from, use and interpret results of descriptive statistical methods effectively.

UNITS        : 3
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTGP-502: Cytogenetic, Evolution and Biostatistics (Practical)

• Recognize scientific hypotheses and assess the scientific validity of biological explanations.
• Compute central tendency
• Explain how genetic inheritance pattern works.
• Infer evolutionary patterns based on morphology of fossil plants
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10

BOTGT-601: Biochemistry, Plant Ecology and Plant Geography

• Demonstrate a fundamental knowledge of environment
• Demonstrate knowledge of interaction between plants and the abiotic and biotic environment.
• Develop abilities to think critically about pollution.
• Define and classify the conservation methods
• Provide an idea of distribution of plants over the globe
UNITS        : 3
MARKS      :  48 End + 12 IA = 60
LECTURES: 40

BOTGP-602: Biochemistry, Plant Ecology and Plant Geography (Practical)
• Analyze proteins, carbohydrates and lipids present in plant materials.
• Determination of minimum sample size for vegetative study
• Determination of minimum number of samples to be taken for vegetative study
• Estimate standing crop biomass and productivity of ecosystem.
UNITS        : 1
MARKS      :  32 End + 8 IA = 40
LECTURES: 10



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